Weblocks is a web framework, created circa 2007, that allows to write dynamic web applications in full Lisp, without a line of Javascript. It is based on so called widgets, that are rendered server-side and updated on the client, and it was also based on continuations (they were removed in this fork, at least for now). It was quietly being forgotten but it is being fixed, refactored, documented and simplified by Alexander “svetlyak40wt” since a year or so.

I rewrote the quickstart to show the use of widgets, the heart of Weblocks, Alexander proof-read and here we are:

http://40ants.com/weblocks/quickstart.html (and reddit comments)

I copy it below, of course check the official website for updates.

The old Weblocks website is at https://common-lisp.net/project/cl-weblocks/


Btw, other isomorphic web frameworks I know are Haskell's Haste, Nim's Karax, Ocaml's Heliom, Python's Nagare, of course Smalltalk's Seaside and a couple more.

Weblocks is now the easiest to get started with, the one “really isomorphic” (bluring the line between server and client code), the most elegant (to me) and one of the two, with Seaside, that allow for REPL-driven development.

For what I tested, Heliom is a hell to install, it seems a hell to deploy, and it is bloated with specific Ocaml syntax that is always upcoming in new compiler versions.

Karax seems promising, it was recently used to rewrite the Nim forum. It has currently zero docs (not even a quickstart ;) ) and Nim's ecosystem isn't near as large as CL's. (and, well, no REPL, no Lisp)

Nagare is actually based on Stackless Python. Looking at the code of the successfull Kansha Trello clone, it actually includes inline Javascript. And personnally, I'm running away from Python so…


Quickstart

warning

This version of Weblocks is not in Quicklisp yet. To
install it you need to clone the repository somewhere where ASDF will find it, for example, to the ~/common-lisp/ directory.

Load weblocks and create a package for a sandbox:

CL-USER> (ql:quickload '(:weblocks :weblocks-ui :find-port))
CL-USER> (defpackage todo
           (:use #:cl
                 #:weblocks-ui/form
                 #:weblocks/html)
           (:import-from #:weblocks/widget
                    #:render
                    #:update
                    #:defwidget)
           (:import-from #:weblocks/actions
                    #:make-js-action)
           (:import-from #:weblocks/app
                    #:defapp))
#<PACKAGE "TODO">
CL-USER> (in-package todo)
#<PACKAGE "TODO">

Now, create an application:

TODO> (defapp tasks)
TODO> (weblocks/debug:on)
TODO> (defvar *port* (find-port:find-port))
TODO> (weblocks/server:start :port *port*)
 <INFO> [19:41:00] weblocks/server server.lisp (start) -
  Starting weblocks WEBLOCKS/SERVER::PORT: 40000
  WEBLOCKS/SERVER::SERVER-TYPE: :HUNCHENTOOT DEBUG: T
 <INFO> [19:41:00] weblocks/server server.lisp (start-server) -
  Starting webserver on WEBLOCKS/SERVER::INTERFACE: "localhost"
  WEBLOCKS/SERVER::PORT: 40000 DEBUG: T
 #<SERVER port=40000 running>
 (NIL)

Open http://localhost:40000/tasks/ in your browser (double check the port) and you'll see a text like that:

No weblocks/session:init method defined.
Please define a method weblocks.session:init to initialize a session.

It could be something simple, like this one:

(defmethod weblocks/session:init ((app tasks))
            "Hello world!")

Read more in the documentaion.

It means that you didn't write any code for your application. Let's do it now and make an application which outputs a list of tasks.

In the end, we'll build the mandatory TODO-list app:

the TODO-list app in Weblocks.

The Task widget

TODO> (defwidget task ()
        ((title
          :initarg :title
          :accessor title)
         (done
          :initarg :done
          :initform nil
          :accessor done)))

This code defines a task widget, the building block of our application. defwidget is similar to Common Lisp's defclass, in fact it is only a wrapper around it. It takes a name, a list of super-classes (here ()) and a list of slot definitions.

We can create a task with make-instance:

TODO> (defvar *task-1* (make-instance 'task :title "Make my first Weblocks app"))
TODO> *task-1*
#<TASK {1005406F33}>

Above, :title is the initarg, and since we didn't give a :done argument, it will be instanciated to its :initform, which is nil.

We defined accessors for both slots, so we can read and set them easily:

TODO> (title *task-1*)
"Make my first Weblocks app"
TODO> (done *TASK-1*)
NIL
TODO> (setf (done *TASK-1*) t)
T

We define a constructor for our task:

TODO> (defun make-task (&key title done)
        (make-instance 'task :title title :done done))

It isn't mandatory, but it is good practice to do so.

If you are not familiar with the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS), you can have a look at Practical Common Lisp and the Common Lisp Cookbook.

Now let's carry on with our application.

The Tasks-list widget

Below we define a more general widget that contains a list of tasks, and we tell Weblocks how to display them by specializing the render method for our newly defined classes:

TODO> (defwidget task-list ()
        ((tasks
          :initarg :tasks
          :accessor tasks)))

TODO> (defmethod render ((task task))
        "Render a task."
        (with-html
              (:span (if (done task)
                         (with-html
                               (:s (title task)))
                       (title task)))))

TODO> (defmethod render ((widget task-list))
        "Render a list of tasks."
        (with-html
              (:h1 "Tasks")
              (:ul
                (loop for task in (tasks widget) do
                      (:li (render task))))))

The with-html macro uses Spinneret under the hood, but you can use anything that outputs html.

We can check how the generated html looks like by calling render in the REPL:

TODO> (render *task-1*)
<div class="widget task"><span>Make my first Weblocks app</span>
</div>
NIL

But we still don't get anything in the browser.

TODO> (defun make-task-list (&rest rest)
             "Create some tasks from titles."
             (loop for title in rest collect
                   (make-task :title title)))

TODO> (defmethod weblocks/session:init ((app tasks))
         (declare (ignorable app))
         (let ((tasks (make-task-list "Make my first Weblocks app"
                                      "Deploy it somewhere"
                                      "Have a profit")))
           (make-instance 'task-list :tasks tasks)))

This defines a list of tasks (for simplicity, they are defined as a list in memory) and returns what will be our session's root widget..

Restart the application:

TODO> (weblocks/debug:reset-latest-session)

Right now it should look like this:

Our first list of tasks.

Adding tasks

Now, we'll add some ability to interact with a list – to add some tasks into it, like so:

Adding tasks in our TODO-list interactively.

Import a new module, weblocks-ui to help in creating forms and other UI elements:

TODO> (ql:quickload "weblocks-ui")
TODO> (use-package :weblocks-ui/form)

Write a new add-task function and modify the render method of a task-list:

TODO> (defmethod render ((widget task-list))
          (flet ((add-task (&key title &allow-other-keys)
                   (push (make-task :title title)
                         (tasks (weblocks/widgets/root:get)))
                   (update (weblocks/widgets/root:get))))
            (with-html
              (:h1 "Tasks")
              (loop for task in (tasks widget) do
                   (render task))
              (with-html-form (:POST #'add-task)
                (:input :type "text"
                        :name "title"
                        :placeholder "Task's title")
                (:input :type "submit"
                        :value "Add")))))

TODO> (weblocks/debug:reset-latest-session)

The function add-task does only two simple things:

  • it adds a task into a list;
  • it tells Weblocks that our root widget should be redrawn.

This second point is really important because it allows Weblocks to render necessary parts of the page on the server and to inject it into the HTML DOM in the browser. Here it rerenders the root widget, but we can as well update a specific task widget, as we'll do soon.

We also took care of defining add-task inline, as a closure, for it to be thread safe.

Another block in our new version of render of a task-list is the form:

(with-html-form (:POST #'add-task)
   (:input :type "text"
    :name "task"
    :placeholder "Task's title")
   (:input :type "submit"
    :value "Add"))

It defines a text field, a submit button and an action to perform on form submit. The add-task function will receive the text input as argument.

note

This is really amazing!

With Weblocks, you can handle all the business logic server-side, because an action can be any lisp function, even an anonymous lambda, closuring all necessary variables.

Restart the application and reload the page. Test your form now and see in a Webinspector how Weblocks sends requests to the server and receives HTML code with rendered HTML block.

Now we'll make our application really useful – we'll add code to toggle the tasks’ status.

Toggle tasks

TODO> (defmethod toggle ((task task))
        (setf (done task)
              (if (done task)
                  nil
                  t))
        (update task))

TODO> (defmethod render ((task task))
        (with-html
          (:p (:input :type "checkbox"
            :checked (done task)
            :onclick (make-js-action
                      (lambda (&rest rest)
                        (declare (ignore rest))
                      (toggle task))))
              (:span (if (done task)
                   (with-html
                         ;; strike
                         (:s (title task)))
                 (title task))))))

We defined a small helper to toggle the done attribute, and we've modified our task rendering function by adding a code to render a checkbox with an anonymous lisp function, attached to its onclick attribute.

The function make-js-action returns a Javascript code, which calls back a lisp lambda function when evaluated in the browser. And because toggle updates a Task widget, Weblocks returns on this callback a new prerendered HTML for this one task only.

What is next?

As a homework:

  1. Play with lambdas and add a “Delete” button next after each task.
  2. Add the ability to sort tasks by name or by completion flag.
  3. Save tasks in a database (the Cookbook might help).
  4. Read the rest of the documentation and make a real application, using the full power of Common Lisp.